Tuesday , June 28 2022

This is how astronomers have solved the mystery of the "avoidance area"



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Even from our location, there is a wonderful lesson to learn: the galactic plane hides the Universe beyond it, 10 degrees above and below, in visible light, as shown here. If you want to see what's beyond our galaxy – or any galaxy with dust – take a look at the infrared and watch the universe open up to you.ESO / B.Tafreshi

Since the time of their first discovery, the spirals of the Universe have tangled astronomers.

This ultraviolet composite image of the Andromeda galaxy, taken by the GALEX spacecraft, presents the youngest and most bluish stars of all, drawing the spiral arms and galactic balls. Andromeda was the first spiral nebula to be identified as a galaxy beyond ours. Notice the broad nature of the arms, indicating that new waves of star formation can be triggered by mild tidal disturbances.NASA / JPL-Caltech / GALEX

While the stars, star groups and other nebulae were concentrated in the Milky Way, there were no spiral nebulae.

The central region of the misty path in visible light, with the location of the galactic center marked by E. Siegel. Millions of stars can be found there and Pan-STARRS has collected more than one data. Near the plane of the galaxy, however, there are no spiral nebulae. At least not in visible light.Jaime Fern & aacute; ndez

For some reason, they avoided the plane of the galaxy, & nbsp; which became known as & nbsp;Avoid Area.

A map of star density in the Milky Way and the surrounding sky, clearly showing the Milky Way, the Magellanic Big and Small Nights (the two largest satellite galaxies), and if you look closely, NGC 104 on the SMC left, NGC 6205 slightly above and to the left of the galactic core, and NGC 7078 slightly below. There are many galaxies to be discovered, but about 10 degrees above and below the galactic plane, the visible light can not reveal them.ESA / GAIA

After we discovered that the nebulous spirals were galaxies beyond ours, the problem became more sensitive.

A small selection of the Pan-STARRS galaxy, where the dust is very dense, but the beans themselves are slightly different than anywhere else. This survey offers the most comprehensive 3D data ever made.Danny Farrow, Pan-STARRS1 Scientific Consortium and Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics

Dust, gas and concentrated matter block light from more distant objects by hiding them.

Visible (left) and infrared (right) visible views of Bok-rich Bok globe, Barnard 68. Infrared light is not blocked nearly as much as smaller dust granules are too small to interact with long light of the wavelength. At longer wavelengths, more of the Universe beyond the dust that blocks light can be revealed.ESO

Dust itself consists of particle granules of specific size, preferably blocking photons with shorter wavelengths.

Dark regions have very dense dust clouds. Red stars tend to be reddened by dust, while blue stars are in front of dust clouds. These images are part of a study of the southern galactic planet.Legacy Survey / NOAO, AURA, NSF

Even modern 3D dust maps show this;The size of the dust granules is independent of the location in the galaxy.

As a result, infrared telescopes can see through the dust, revealing the material behind it.

The view of the galactic center in four different bands of wavelengths. At the top of the ATLASGAL survey at 870 microns; below it, from Spitzer to the middle of IR; below, from VISTA from ESO to near IR, and at the bottom of visible light, where dust hides any interest.ESO / ATLASGAL Consortium / NASA / GLIMPSE Consortium / VVV / ESA / Planck / D. Minniti / S. Guisard Consortium Recognition: Ignacio Toledo, Martin Kornmesser

Not only can we reveal the structure of our inner galaxy, but we they eventually found the galaxies behind it.

The promising activity of the Italian astronomer Paolo Maffei on infrared astronomy culminated in the discovery of galaxies – such as Maffei 1 and 2, presented here – on the Milky Way itself. Maffei 1, the giant elliptical galaxy from the bottom left, is the closest elliptical giant to the Milky Way, but was discovered until 1967.WISE mission; NASA / JPL-Caltech / UCLA

The first galaxies found in the Avoidance Area are called Maffei 1 and 2, after Paolo Maffei, who pioneered infrared astronomy.

What we call "Avoidance Area" is not, as we usually present, a nearby region with very few galaxies. Although we have seen very few galaxies, in reality it is probably a region with as many galaxies as the rest of the Universe, which is hard to see from our point of view!small project flow / University of Hawaii

Galaxies are as rich in the Avoidance Area as any other place.

Many galaxies, especially young and dusty ones, emit most of their energy in the infrared portion of the spectrum. If we want to find the brightest galaxies of all, we will need a new-generation infrared space telescope. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope is a local example of a predominantly infrared galaxy, and galaxies of this kind can be revealed in infrared thanks to infrared observers such as Spitzer and WISE.NASA / JPL-Caltech / SSC / R. Kennicutt et al.

Thanks to the view of the Universe with infrared eyes, the mystery is now resolved.

Although the vast majority of infrared emissions come from the Milky Way itself, where stars, gas and dust are located first, many galaxies can be seen beyond. When looking into the correct light wavelengths, the distribution of galaxies appears random; The avoidance area is an artifact to look at visible wavelengths. where the blocking of light is very effective.NASA / JPL-Caltech / UCLA for the WISE mission


Moreover, Monday Mute tells the scientific story of a phenomenon, subject or astronomical problem in visuals, and no more than 200 words. Talk less; smile more.

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Even from our location, there is a wonderful lesson to learn: the galactic plane hides the Universe beyond it, 10 degrees above and below, in visible light, as shown here. If you want to see what's beyond our galaxy – or any galaxy with dust – take a look at the infrared and watch the universe open up to you.ESO / B.Tafreshi

Since the time of their first discovery, the spirals of the Universe have tangled astronomers.

This ultraviolet composite image of the Andromeda galaxy, taken by the GALEX spacecraft, presents the youngest and most bluish stars of all, drawing the spiral arms and galactic balls. Andromeda was the first spiral nebula to be identified as a galaxy beyond ours. Notice the broad nature of the arms, indicating that new waves of star formation can be triggered by mild tidal disturbances.NASA / JPL-Caltech / GALEX

While the stars, star groups and other nebulae were concentrated in the Milky Way, there were no spiral nebulae.

The central region of the misty path in visible light, with the location of the galactic center marked by E. Siegel. Millions of stars can be found there and Pan-STARRS has collected more than one data. Near the plane of the galaxy, however, there are no spiral nebulae. At least not in visible light.Jaime Fern√°ndez

For some reason, they avoided the plane of our galaxy, which became known as the Avoidance Area.

A map of star density in the Milky Way and the surrounding sky, clearly showing the Milky Way, the Magellanic Big and Small Nights (the two largest satellite galaxies), and if you look closely, NGC 104 on the SMC left, NGC 6205 slightly above and to the left of the galactic core, and NGC 7078 slightly below. There are many galaxies to be discovered, but about 10 degrees above and below the galactic plane, the visible light can not reveal them.ESA / GAIA

After we discovered that the nebulous spirals were galaxies beyond ours, the problem became simpler.

A small selection of the Pan-STARRS galaxy, where the dust is very dense, but the beans themselves are slightly different than anywhere else. This survey offers the most comprehensive 3D data ever made.Danny Farrow, Pan-STARRS1 Scientific Consortium and Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics

Dust, gas and concentrated matter block light from more distant objects by hiding them.

Visible (left) and infrared (right) visible views of Bok-rich Bok globe, Barnard 68. Infrared light is not blocked nearly as much as smaller dust granules are too small to interact with long light of the wavelength. At longer wavelengths, more of the Universe beyond the dust that blocks light can be revealed.ESO

The dust itself is composed of granules of matter of specific size, preferably blocking photons with a shorter wavelength.

Dark regions have very dense dust clouds. Red stars tend to be reddened by dust, while blue stars are in front of dust clouds. These images are part of a study of the southern galactic planet.Legacy Survey / NOAO, AURA, NSF

Even modern 3D dust maps show this; the size of the dust granules is independent of the location in the galaxy.

As a result, infrared telescopes can see through the dust, revealing the material behind it.

The view of the galactic center in four different bands of wavelengths. At the top of the ATLASGAL survey at 870 microns; below it, from Spitzer to the middle of IR; below, from VISTA from ESO to near IR, and at the bottom of visible light, where dust hides any interest.ESO / ATLASGAL Consortium / NASA / GLIMPSE Consortium / VVV / ESA / Planck / D. Minniti / S. Guisard Consortium Recognition: Ignacio Toledo, Martin Kornmesser

Not only can we reveal the structure of our own galaxy from within, but eventually we found the galaxies behind it.

The promising activity of the Italian astronomer Paolo Maffei on infrared astronomy culminated in the discovery of galaxies – such as Maffei 1 and 2, presented here – on the Milky Way itself. Maffei 1, the giant elliptical galaxy from the bottom left, is the closest elliptical giant to the Milky Way, but was discovered until 1967.WISE mission; NASA / JPL-Caltech / UCLA

The first galaxies found in the Avoidance Area are called Maffei 1 and 2, after Paolo Maffei, who pioneered infrared astronomy.

What we call "Avoidance Area" is not, as we usually present, a nearby region with very few galaxies. Although we have seen very few galaxies, in reality it is probably a region with as many galaxies as the rest of the Universe, which is hard to see from our point of view!small project flow / University of Hawaii

Galaxies are as rich in the Avoidance Area as any other place.

Many galaxies, especially young and dusty ones, emit most of their energy in the infrared portion of the spectrum. If we want to find the brightest galaxies of all, we will need a new-generation infrared space telescope. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope is a local example of a predominantly infrared galaxy, and galaxies of this kind can be revealed in infrared thanks to infrared observers such as Spitzer and WISE.NASA / JPL-Caltech / SSC / R. Kennicutt et al.

Thanks to the view of the Universe with infrared eyes, the mystery is now resolved.

Although the vast majority of infrared emissions come from the Milky Way itself, where stars, gas and dust are located first, many galaxies can be seen beyond. When looking into the correct light wavelengths, the distribution of galaxies appears random; The avoidance area is an artifact to look at visible wavelengths. where the blocking of light is very effective.NASA / JPL-Caltech / UCLA for the WISE mission


Moreover, Monday Mute tells the scientific story of a phenomenon, subject or astronomical problem in visuals, and no more than 200 words. Talk less; smile more.

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