Thursday , February 9 2023

CERN plans to build a much larger particle collider. Much, much, bigger.


CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, wants to build a particle hammer to lose the Large Hadron Collider (LRC). LHC has made important breakthroughs, and planned upgrades to its power ensure it will continue to work on physics issues in the future. But, in the end, it will not be enough to unleash the secrets of physics. Finally, we will need something bigger and stronger.

Insert the future circular collision device (FCC) The FCC will exceed the LHC power at a size order. On January 15, FCC's collaboration launched the Conceptual Conception Report (CDR) setting out options for the future CERN Circular Cylinder.

The FCC is part of the CERN roadmap for their future. In 2014, CERN began studying the FCC concept in preparing for life after the LHC. The LHC is not going anywhere soon, it's actually being updated right now. But there is a limit to what it can do and a limit to how powerful it can be. Ultimately, a successor will be needed.

"The FCC will provide electron-positron collisions, proton-proton and ion-ion collisions at unprecedented energies and intensities …"

CERN Press Release, January 15, 2019.

This report is currently about strategy and process. According to a CERN press release, Europe should "be able to propose an ambitious post-LHC accelerator project at CERN until the next update of the strategy." It is also said that the FCC will provide electron-positron, proton-proton and ion-ion collisions at unprecedented energies and intensities, with the possibility of electron-proton and electron-ion collisions. "

"The FCC's conceptual design report is a remarkable achievement. It shows the extraordinary potential of the FCC to improve our knowledge of fundamental physics and to promote many technologies with a broad impact on society," said CERN Managing Director Fabiola Gianotti. "While presenting new, discouraging challenges, the FCC would greatly benefit from CERN expertise, the accelerator and infrastructure complex that has been developed in more than half a century."

The announcement focuses on the Higgs-Boson discovery at the LHC. This was a remarkable discovery and one that has long been predicted by theory. But there is much we still do not know about Higgs-Boson and the understanding that it will require a particle collider stronger than the LHC. Physicists believe Higgs-Boson could open a whole new door in physics, but to open that door requires a stronger particle collider.

The FCC proton accelerator would use new-generation superconducting magnets and would offer lots of new opportunities for physics study. It is designed to produce 100 TeV and more, which means that it would allow the study of Higgs particles interacting with extreme precision.

The new particle shaker will also use its power to probe the dark matter, try to understand the matter's prevalence over anti-matter, and try to explain the masses of neutrinos.

It could even find massive particles and allow a thorough exploration of the role of the breakdown of electroweak symmetry in the history of our universe. The FCC would also collide heavy ions, supporting a physics-rich physics program to study the state of matter in the early universe.

Artistic impression of a collision event at the center of a future detector following preliminary design studies. Credit Image: CERN.
Artistic impression of a collision event at the center of a future detector following preliminary design studies. Credit Image: CERN.

If it were built, the FCC would be in the same place as the LHC, the Geneva Basin. The new particle hammer would have a diameter of between 80 and 100 kilometers.

"The ultimate goal of the FCC is to provide a 100-kilometer superconducting proton accelerator ring with an energy of up to 100 TeV, which means an order of magnitude stronger than the LHC," said Frédérick Bordry, director for accelerators and CERN technology. "The FCC chronology provides for starting with an electron-positron machine, just as LEP preceded the LHC. This would allow a rich program to benefit the particle physics community during the 21st century."

Proton colliders have been the instrument of choice for generations to venture new physics to the smallest scale. A large proton detector would be a leap forward in this exploration, and will decisively expand the physics program beyond the results of the LHC and a possible electron-positive attacker, "said Eckhard Elsen, CERN Research & .

A scene from the CERN video,
A scene from the CERN film, "Designing the Future Circular Collider". The new particle hammer will be built in the Geneva Basin next to the LHC. Credit Image: CERN.

The new particle hammer would be a massive engineering project. The projected cost is in the range of 9 billion euros for a 100 km tunnel. If everything goes according to the plan, it would begin its physics program in 2040, even at the end of high-brightness LHC. At first, the particle hammer would function as an electron-positive coagulator and serve the physics community for 15 to 20 years. Then it would have turned into a superconducting proton car using the same tunnel at the end of the 2050s. That would cost another 15 billion euros.

From the CERN FCC press kit. A chronology of particle collisions. Credit Image: CERN.
A chronology of CERN particle collisions. Credit Image: CERN.

When it was built, the new particle collider will become the global center of particle physics research, as well as the LHC. It will be an engine of innovation in engineering, technology, science and industry. It will also prepare the next generation of physicists and researchers.


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