Sunday , October 2 2022

Learn about electricity – why should not the batteries be fully charged and emptied? / Article / LSM.LV


The world is working to improve the battery's ability to store energy. Kristaps Vitols, a researcher in Latvia, is also working on this. In the LTV, Cognitive Impulse, he says the battery life should not be fully charged and completely discharged.

How was the victory of civilization in exchange for electricity?

  • In the sixth century BC in Ancient Greece. The yoke has discovered static electricity by rubbing a piece of amber on a wool.
  • In 1771, the Italian doctor Luigi Galvani noticed that the rod was trampled when he was rotated over it.
  • In 1800, the Italian physicist, Alesandro Volta, created the first electric battery.
  • In 1820, André Marie Amper understood how the current magnetic field is affected.
  • In 1831, Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction and laid the foundation for the creation of an electric motor.
  • In 1879, American inventor Thomas Edison patented the first incandescent bulb.

It is said that at a time when Faraday had discovered progress in front of his country's prime minister, the politician asked if he had any use. Faradey at that time determined – I do not know, but I am convinced that it will be possible to collect taxes.

Meanwhile, in another science, the legendary personality of Nicholas Tesla went in a different way – he had the idea of ​​releasing electricity for everyone. The basic idea of ​​a Tesla drum is that an object in the city center generates electricity, but electric bulbs or any other non-woven electric equipment receive the energy it needs. The problem was that the number of users was very small. So the idea of ​​the Tesla drum seems at least now as a costly and inefficient way to provide electricity to consumers. Who knows, maybe the idea of ​​electricity available as wireless internet is not the right time.

Much better with James M. Maxwell, making his ideas go to work. His idea of ​​how a magnet in motion generates electricity has made a major breakthrough in civilization development. The magnet moves electrons like water. By the way, the same electricity is often used for such a comparison, and if there is water, there is also a current or current measuring unit and all the others.

Basic principles of electrical physics

What is the electricity flow? These are electrons – small particles in small atoms. Some basic principles of physics need to be taken into account to understand why electrons form electricity.

Physicists illustrate electrons like balls, which, however, have, although very negligible but still attractive forces, but, unlike others, have a very strong rejection force. Because atoms without electrons have other proton particles, they interact with each other. Usually, how much in the atom do not have a proton, so much of an electron and we do not feel any special electrical discharge. With time, for example, when we rub a surface on another, we take the electrons from one surface to the next, and then we change the number of particles, they start to attract particles from other objects. And all of this can be measured as electricity.

Electrical accumulations can be transferred from one surface to the next. For example, this happens every time the hair is emitted, synthetic clothing, even if it pulls its feet on the ground and touches metal objects.

The electromagnetic field, on the other hand, determines whether the electrons will move like a connecting river and will form a direct current or will fly here 50 times per second, generating alternating current.

Exploring energy storage

All current energy generation types, except for solar energy, generate alternating current. However, only direct current can accumulate. Direct current is the form in which energy is stored in batteries, and battery types are as varied as their tasks: to operate devices, to accumulate the energy produced.

The way in which and how long the batteries can store energy depends directly on the chemical elements in them. Instead, the battery charger affects the behavior of these elements. "When we accumulate energy, some of the ions move from one side to the other and the electricity does not flow in. When you charge the battery, the ions are aligned on the other side and is waiting, we connect the external load and the current starts to flow in the opposite direction and the ions are moving backwards, so they are at the second point of equilibrium, "explains Kristaps Vitols, a researcher at the Riga Institute for Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering (RTU).

When the batteries become empty or do not perform their task, they do not react again so that the particles do not stay in the right places. "It's not good to throw the battery all the way in. Because then the ions went to the other side, they settled in their place and the longer they are there, the more they like to stay there. to decrease capacity. It can not accumulate so much and it can not function so much, "says Vitol.

This means that the battery should not be fully charged and completely discharged. "In one case, the ions remain on one side and the other on the other.

Both of these extreme points degrade the battery, "the investigator explains.

Not long ago, it was thought that batteries should not be partially recharged, because then they remember their situation figuratively and did not at all try to be full. It seems – this is neither myth nor truth, because everything is in it from which the batteries are made. "Those built into devices, such as lithium-ion batteries, have no memory effect. In the past, there were nickel-cadmium batteries, which were mentioned – if they were half-paid, only half worked," says Vitol.

To further improve battery capacity to store energy, the world does not make millions in this industry. In Latvia, Kristaps Vitols is one of those scientists who, looking for the best battery solutions, care about them as a living organism. "There is no electronics, just chemistry and the science of materials designed to make batteries last longer, better and cheaper. When they have to be transplanted, the cells have to be combined with schemes that deal with the welfare of each cell," the researcher explains.

Battery richness depends on temperature, but to have electrons it accumulates, they must be able to move.

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