Disease spreading issues were discussed at the thematic meeting "Diabetes Affects Every Family" at the District Officers House. Doctors held a lecture on diabetes prevention, and patients could ask questions and measure blood sugar levels.
A press conference with physicians, dedicated to the date, took place in Samara. Chief independent specialist in providing ambulatory care to patients with diabetes, endocrinologist SamSMU Svetlana Mantsagova led statistics. At the end of 2017, the prevalence of Type 1 diabetes in the region was 168.9 per 100 thousand inhabitants, the second type was 3821.2 per 100 thousand inhabitants. In total, there were 117,000 patients in the region, 95% of whom had type 2 diabetes. An increase in the number of patients takes place annually. Thus, in five years, the number of patients increased by 6.5 thousand, and in the last 10 years – by 37.5 thousand.
"Diabetes of the first type occurs most often in young people," explains Svetlana Mantsagova. In this case, the absolute deficiency of insulin develops, which requires lifelong therapy.
Individuals aged 45 years are typically those with type 2 diabetes. – These patients require a thorough examination. Recently, unfortunately, second-line diabetes has become more common in children. This is because they consume a lot of high-calorie foods – fast foods, carbonated drinks, and a sedentary lifestyle. "
Head of Pediatric Endocrinology Medicine at the Ministry of Health of the Samara Region, head of the Department of Endocrinology of the Children's Hospital in Samara, named after N.N. Ivanova Evgenia Mihailova said that 1% of children suffer from type 2 diabetes in the region. Their disease is more aggressive than in adults, and the risk of complications is much higher.
"At the beginning of 2018, the first type of diabetes affected 998 children," says Evgenia Mikhailova. – I think that when we summarize the year, unfortunately, these will be more than one thousand, because the average annual increase of these patients is 5-7%. And we see the tendency for a very high percentage of pre-school children to get sick. Over the past three years, about 32-35% of detected cases are children under six, of which about 30% are under two years of age. Causes of diabetes are the same. It is shown that the first type has an autoimmune character. Some have a genetic predisposition to the development of autoimmune diseases when the immune system does not fight against external enemies but takes its own organs and systems for enemies. This can be manifested by various diseases. But there are factors as a person begins to overcome the pancreas against a background of genetic predisposition. First, these are viral infections – influenza virus, parainfluenza, varicella in children. Another factor – the child's food features. It is best to breastfeed.
What should parents pay attention to to prevent the onset of this insidious disease? For children over three years of age, typical manifestations are as follows: the baby began to drink a lot, often went to the toilet, especially at night, lost weight, even if he had a good appetite and he began to get tired at school. If you find such signs, you should immediately go to a doctor and have a blood test for sugar.
In children in the first three years of life, the onset of diabetes is very similar to food poisoning – the baby becomes slow, refuses to eat, nausea, vomiting and high levels of blood sugar are detected.
Diabetes mellitus can lead to a number of complications: vision impairment, blindness, chronic renal failure, cardiovascular disease, leg damage with gangrene development and subsequent amputation. And if there is no prophylaxis for type 1 diabetes then it is possible to prevent type 2 diabetes, doctors say. To do this, follow the recommendations: to play sports and monitor nutrition. Contrary to the stereotype, there is no direct link between diabetes and sweetness for sweets. It is important to monitor the calorie content of your diet.
"A girl needs about two thousand kilocalories a day, a boy needs 2.5 thousand calories," says Evgenia Mikhailova. – For adults, there is a special formula for calculating calories per day, depending on age and physical activity. For an office worker, the norm is 1600-1800 kilocalories. "
– At risk are people with overweight, low physical activity, cardiovascular disease, women who gave birth to a large child weighing more than four kilograms. Such patients require a thorough examination.
Svetlana Mantsagova, Chief specialized in Outpatient Medical Services for Diabetics at the Ministry of Health of the Samara Region