World Diabetes Day was launched in 1991, in the face of the growing number of diabetics around the world. November 14th commemorates the birthday of Frederick G. Banting, who discovered, together with Charles Herbert Best in 1921, vital hormone insulin, as stated in a Cantonese hospital Uri statement.
On this day, diabetes, its causes and the impact on the lives of affected people should be brought to the attention of the world. "Above all, it should be clear that diabetes is not the problem, but more and more people around the world have to live with the disease," says the Swiss Diabetes Society (SDG).
Is early detection of diabetes possible?
Esther Hunkeler: In type 2 diabetes, previously called adult diabetes, definitely. If someone belongs to a risk group, it is logical that the blood glucose level is checked regularly by the family doctor. Thus, high levels of blood sugar can be detected and initial measures can be initiated, for example, in the context of lifestyle change with nutritional counseling. There is no early detection of Type 1 diabetes, which occurs primarily in childhood and adolescence and can generally develop at any stage of life. The reason for this is that the pancreas abruptly stops producing insulin and this is unpredictable.
risk group? So, how does anyone see if she has a diabetes risk?
Esther Hunkeler: A person has an increased risk of developing diabetes if, for example, they are overweight, suffer from high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. These factors are compounded when one has close relatives who already have diabetes – for example, father, mother or brother. However, people who have normal body weight but are familiar biased can also develop diabetes. In addition, studies have shown that regular physical activity can be an effective way to prevent diabetes.
The cold is also the sweet season. What does this mean for diabetics?
Esther Hunkeler: Food and drink have a direct influence on the level of blood sugar. In diabetes counseling often ask questions about nutrition, which are then discussed in nutritional counseling. In counseling diabetes, I explain to the patient the clinical picture. They also learn how to measure blood glucose correctly. In addition, patients should learn to understand the individual treatment of diabetes, either the mode of action of a drug or the insulin regimen. If someone has to inject insulin, he or she will also be trained by me. The purpose of diabetes counseling is that the patient is able to manage diabetes well with the doctor.
Patrik Jauch: Sweet things should not be completely deleted from diet, even with diabetes. It is usually logical to program sweets and desserts right after a main meal instead of between.
Consuming too many sweets is the cause of diabetes?
Patrik Jauch: People often say this, but they are not right. The main factor is overweight or, in particular, excessive abdominal fat. That has the biggest impact. And then I have to say that not only white sugar has an influence, but rather the total amount of carbohydrates, which also affects fructose, starch supplements, malt sugar or milk sugar. Excessive administration, in addition to the influence on weight and abdominal fat, also has an independent influence when a type 2 diabetes "detaches". A measure of supply – including sweets – but also part of a balanced diet.
Generally, for nutrition. How Does Diet Disease Depend on?
Patrik Jauch: A well-balanced diet is essential to maintaining health. It's not just about eating vegetables but about general balance. Today, it is known that various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and many others can be avoided for a long time – but not 100%. Nutrition or malnutrition is also just a risk factor, such as heredity, the environment, smoking, etc.
Is diabetes a disease of prosperity?
Esther Hunkeler: Yes, part of it is certainly due to the prosperity of our society. Much of the population is looking for a sedentary job. In addition, foods are always available and everywhere, especially very large foods, high calorie foods. These two factors promote excess weight, which in turn is a risk factor for the onset of diabetes.
Morning after picking up, a cup of coffee, an espresso. What do you call a dietician?
Patrik Jauch: Breakfast is important. People who eat breakfast have a lower risk of having diabetes, obesity or its consequences, even after recent studies. That's why I would not cancel the coffee. Especially with coffee, it is assumed to have positive effects on the cardiovascular system. However, I would consider in nutritional advice what you would most likely imagine me eating for breakfast. At most, I would then set a specific objective up to the next meeting.
Healthy care, avoiding diabetes. Can you say that?
Patrik Jauch: Avoiding is probably the wrong word, but its delay. So, if you eat healthy, so-called type 2 diabetes, called sugar by age, with only 90 instead of 60 years, if you bring a strong family mood. However, type 1 diabetes has nothing to do with lifestyle. This can be affected both at an early age and in advanced age, even if lifestyle is healthy.
Should diabetics do more sports?
Esther Hunkeler: Yes, absolutely. Regular physical activity is an important part of the concept of treatment because the exercise can reduce blood sugar even without insulin. Moving within 150 minutes a week has a positive impact on sugar metabolism. It does not matter if it's 60 minutes of swimming twice a week plus 30 minutes of cycling home-based trainer or 30 minutes of fast-running after dinner four times a week. And, of course, it does not matter if someone moves more than 150 minutes a week.
Are there special dietary recommendations for diabetes?
Patrik Jauch: The basics of today are the recommendations of a balanced balanced diet. The "right" diet, however, is the one that suits that therapy. Whether they only need to pay attention to lifestyle, take pills or inject insulin, it is fundamentally different from the recommendations. It is important to know about the possibilities and then decide how much you can or want to do. The one who wants to get the maximum with a change of lifestyle, the other wants to implement especially the most important cornerstones of everyday life, which is also fine. That is why we recommend an individual consultation instead of very general information.
Can a person come to your hospital if they have a question about their diet and health?
Patrik Jauch: Yes, in the case of diseases such as diabetes, every person is entitled to six to twelve nutritional consultations and nine diabetes consultations per calendar year. These are taken over by the basic insurance of health insurance if you have a medical prescription. Therefore, it is worthwhile talking with a family doctor about a possible assignment. (Pd / ml)